Paperback / softback
November 10, 1995
9.00 Inches (US)
6.00 Inches (US)
.7 Pounds (US)
$32.00 USD, £26.50 GBP
v2.1 Reference

The Foundation of Merit

Public Service in American Democracy

The first systematic examination of the federal civil service in nearly forty years, The Foundation of Merit analyzes the historical development of the civil service in the context of the political and democratic environment that is central to its effectiveness and legitimacy. Patricia Ingraham describes theincremental and disjointed growth of the federal civil service and explains how, and why, it came to be a system with control in the wrong places, with discretion in the wrong places, and why—in its current form—it has little hope of meeting the enormous challenges of the next century.

The book concludes with an examination of the need for reform, the challenges that have shaped that need, and the lessons from the past that should guide the reforms of the future.

About the Author

Patricia W. Ingraham is Founding Dean at the College of Community and Public Affairs, Binghamton University. She is the author of The Foundation of Merit: Public Service in American Democracy and coauthor of Government Performance: Why Management Matters, both published by Johns Hopkins.


"Surveys the development of the protected public service and critiques the current agenda for public service reform. It is successful on both counts, offering an informative and thoughtful introduction to the American public service."

Johns Hopkins University Press
Interpreting American Politics
From 17

9780801851124 : the-foundation-of-merit-ingraham
Paperback / softback
184 Pages
$32.00 USD