The American Medical Ethics Revolution
How the AMA's Code of Ethics Has Transformed Physicians' Relationships to Patients, Professionals, and Society
The American Medical Association enacted its Code of Ethics in 1847, the first such national codification. In this volume, a distinguished group of experts from the fields of medicine, bioethics, and history of medicine reflect on the development of medical ethics in the United States, using historical analyses as a springboard for discussions of the problems of the present, including what the editors call "a sense of moral crisis precipitated by the shift from a system of fee-for-service medicine to a system of fee-for-system medicine, better known as 'managed care.'"
The authors begin with a look at how the medical profession began to consider ethical issues in the 1800s and subsequent developments in the 1900s. They then address the sociological, historical, ethical, and legal aspects of the practice of medicine. Later chapters discuss current and future challenges to medical ethics and professional values. Appendixes display various versions of the AMA's Code of Ethics as it has evolved over time.
Contributors: George J. Annas, J.D., M.P.H., Arthur Isak Applbaum, Ph.D., Robert B. Baker, Ph.D., Chester R. Burns, M.D., Ph.D., Arthur L. Caplan, Ph.D., Alexander Morgan Capron, J.D., Christine K. Cassel, M.D., Linda L. Emanuel, M.D., Ph.D., Eliot L. Freidson, Ph.D., Albert R. Jonsen, Ph.D., Stephen R. Latham, J.D., Ph.D., Susan E. Lederer, Ph.D., Florencia Luna, Ph.D., Edmund D. Pellegrino, M.D., Charles E. Rosenberg, Ph.D., Mark Siegler, M.D., Rosemary A. Stevens, Ph.D., Robert M. Tenery, Jr., M.D., Robert M. Veatch, Ph.D., John Harley Warner, Ph.D., Paul Root Wolpe, Ph.D.
About the Authors
Robert B. Baker, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Philosophy at Union College. Stephen R. Latham J.D., Ph.D., teaches at Northwestern University School of Law. Arthur L. Caplan, Ph.D., is a professor and director, Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania College of Medicine. Linda L. Emanuel, M.D., Ph.D., is Vice President for Ethics Standards at the American Medical Association.
This book will be of value to individuals interested in the history of medicine and the role that codes of ethics have played in that history, in the ethical issues that arise in the promulgation of codes of ethics, and in the way codes of ethics can and can't help us deal with changes brought about by managed care and by breakthroughs in medical technology.
This volume gives a good example of how a discussion of the history of medical ethics can provide the grounding for a well-informed debate on present and future problems in professional ethics and health care.
A sophisticated accoutn of the social and historical processes shaping the AMA Code of Ethics from the late 17th century to the present day.
Oaths embody a distinctive form of ethics. They are activated by the performative utterance 'I swear' and are couched in the first person singular. All these features make them inherently personal. Codes, by contrast, are collaborative. The transition from the personal ethics of oaths to the professional ethics of codes thus marks a radical transition from personally interpreted 'gentlemanly' ethics to collaboratively interpreted professional ethics—a transition so radical that it is properly described as a revolution.
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