Sanctifying Slavery & Politics in South Carolina
The Life of the Reverend Alexander Garden 1685-1756
Shortly after his arrival, Garden, a representative of the bishop of London, became the rector of St. Philip's Church in Charleston, the first Anglican parish in the colony. The ambitious clergyman quickly married into a Charleston slave-trading family and allied himself with the political and social elite. From the pulpit Garden reinforced the social norms and economic demands of the southern planters and merchants, and he disciplined recalcitrant missionaries who dared challenge the prevailing social order. As a way of defending the morality of southern slaveholders, he found himself having to establish the first large-scale school for slaves in Charles Town in the 1740s.
Garden also led a spirited—and largely successful—resistance to the Great Awakening evangelical movement championed by the revivalist minister George Whitefield, whose message of personal salvation and a more democratic Christianity was anathema to the social fabric of the slaveholding South, which continually feared a slave rebellion. As a minister Garden helped make slavery morally defensible in the eyes of his peers, giving the appearance that the spiritual obligations of his slaveholding and slave-trading friends were met as they all became extraordinarily wealthy.
Witzig's lively cultural history—bolstered by numerous primary sources, maps, and illustrations—helps illuminate both the roots of the Old South and the Church of England's role in sanctifying slavery in South Carolina.
"Commissary Alexander Garden's heated opposition to George Whitefield has often clouded our appreciation for this multifaceted man. Fred E. Witzig admirably unpacks Garden's life as a son, churchman, educator, family man, elite Carolinian, and yes, contrarian. Well written, critical, and appropriately empathetic, Sanctifying Slavery and Politics in South Carolina is a model study of a controversial figure."—Samuel C. Smith, professor of history, Liberty University, author of A Cautious Enthusiasm: Mystical Piety and Evangelicalism in Colonial South Carolina
"A fascinating biography of Alexander Garden, who made the Church of England a power to be reckoned with in colonial South Carolina by marrying the Church to the elite's interests. Ornery, vindictive, political, and social, Garden dutifully guided the Church through decades of challenges from within and without. Lively, learned, and well-written, this is the best book yet on religion in colonial South Carolina."—Alan Gallay, Texas Christian University
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